Wednesday, October 29, 2008

Suntanning, Tanning, Sunscreens

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During the Victorian era pasty white skin color was in vogue. Tanned bronze skin was popularized by fashion designer Coco Chanel in the 1920s. During World War II troops stationed in the south Pacific suffered from sun exposure and were then issued white skin cream (zinc oxide) for protection from the sun. These early sunscreens were heavy, greasy and opaque (easily visible after application). They also stained clothing. In the 1970s the FDA began to approve specific substances for use by manufacturers in sunscreens. These can be divided into 2 groups:
1-chemical sunscreens that react with sunlight converting it into heat to decrease damage (benzophenone, homosalate, methyl anthranilate, octyl methoxycinnamate, oxybenzone, avobenzone)
2-physical sunscreens that reflect the sunlight (zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, kaolin, ichthammol, iron oxide).

The physical sunscreens are more chemically stable and have less risk of causing skin contact sensitivity.

Monday, October 27, 2008

Mesotherapy, Lipo-Dissolve, or Injection Lipolysis, Lipozap, Kybella

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Mesotherapy involves the injection of medications under the skin. It has been widely used in Europe for years to treat cellulite, psoriasis or spot reduce fat, amid unsubstantiated claims. One subset of this treatment modality is injection lipolysis where a mixture of phosphatidylcholine(lecithin), isoproterenol, deoxycholate, blood vessel dilators, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, enzymes (such as collagenase or hyaluronidase), aminophylline, caffeine, L-carnitine, buflomedil, calcitonin, vitamins, minerals and hormones in varying combinations are injected into the fat layer under the skin to destroy fat cells. Some of these medications stimulate fat cells to break apart fat molecules contained in the cells. However fat cells in some areas like the thighs and hips are more resistant to this stimulation. The true mechanism of action of some of the medications remains unknown. Multiple injections are made into the treated area per session and sessions are performed a few weeks apart. Some or all of the injected medications are frequently not FDA approved for injection.

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